The Importance of Masonry Relieving Angles in Modern Buildings

pro angle masonry

Masonry structures work primarily in compression perpendicular to their bed (horizontal) joints. Unfortunately, masonry relieving angles in modern buildings often experience damage as a result of poor design and construction. Inadequate design and installation of steel shelf angles can lead to spalling, cracking, and staining of masonry veneer, water infiltration through the wall assembly, moisture-related damage, corrosion of fasteners and their associated components, and other problems. Go to for more details.

pro angle masonry

Inadequate design, construction, and maintenance of shelf angles supporting masonry veneer on structural framing cause spalling and cracking of the masonry, corrosion of the steel angle, deterioration of interior finishes, and water leaks. These issues can be caused by various factors such as grade sizing, improper shimming, insufficient masonry reinforcement, using mortar rather than concrete for filling the joints, and lack of expansion space.

Relieving angles are a key component of brick, stone, and other heavy cladding systems in buildings that require wide openings, such as ribbon windows. These angles take on the load of the masonry, taking the weight off the structural framing members in a building. These angles must be properly designed, detailed, and sized to meet the design requirements of the building code for strength and deflection.

Traditionally, lintels and shelf angles are fabricated from steel, providing superior strength, durability, and corrosion resistance to other materials such as concrete and wood. However, a new generation of engineered materials, such as GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer), has emerged that can offer the benefits of steel at a lower cost and with reduced environmental impacts. These materials are used for many applications, including lintels and support for cladding systems.

Engineers size lintels and support angles to meet the building codes’ strength requirements. They must be able to limit the deflection between support points due to uncategorized dead and live loads to less than L/600 or 0.3″ and resist rotation of no more than 1/16″.

The sizing of the angle depends on the thickness of the masonry, but in most cases, it is set at two-thirds of the maximum thickness of the wythe. The tips are secured to the concrete or masonry structural system through anchor bolts. A detailed engineering calculation must be made for each type of attachment, and these calculations can be done using either a global FE model or a kinematic analysis.

The materials ‘ quality is important because the masonry-bearing wall is exposed to the elements. All frame members should be checked for size, straightness, edges, wood material, and color, and they should be free of shakes, dead knots, and decay. They should also be tested for flexural, shear, and compression strength.

Aesthetic considerations and design requirements for masonry building walls often require the addition of horizontal expansion joints and using shelf angles. These support structures help to distribute the weight of a barrier to various locations in the system so that one spot does not carry all the load on its own. They are often necessary for high-rise buildings and can be used with lintels or other structural components. To prevent these supporting elements from affecting the overall strength of the wall, they must be designed and detailed properly. Shelf angles must be connected to the concrete or masonry structural systems through anchor bolts. The bolts must be sized appropriately to prevent deflection due to uncategorized dead and live loads. The spacing of the anchors must also be examined, as a gap between anchors may allow movement that will weaken the veneer.

The shelf angle design is important to a brick wall’s overall stability. It should be placed where the maximum lateral force is expected to be applied, as this will determine the amount of energy that must be transmitted through it. It will be determined by the slope of the stress plane concerning the plane of the bed joints of the masonry. A low pitch of the stress plane will result in a higher tensile strength than what might be assumed for a given wall.

Traditionally, masonry buildings had thick load-bearing walls that carried the full weight of the building and provided support for openings such as doors and windows. Steel lintels or masonry arches spanned openings in these walls. However, skeleton frame building construction has allowed for wide ribbon windows across entire sections of a façade. This large window type requires a thin wythe of brick, stone, or other masonry to span the whole width of the opening. It can put a lot of weight on the masonry, and the support system must provide a means for this masonry to transfer its importance to the major elements of the building structure.

Moisture accumulation in masonry walls can cause physical and chemical damage to building materials and deteriorate the efficiency of building mechanical systems. Controlling moisture is, therefore, crucial to ensuring the longevity and durability of the cladding system. Moisture ingress is often caused by wind-driven rain (WDR), and a significant source of moisture ingress is water penetration through the interface between masonry and the building frame. It can cause many issues, such as ineffective insulation, freeze-thaw damage, biodeterioration, indoor mold growth, and structural failure.

The most common way to prevent WDR-induced moisture ingress is to ensure that the masonry is fully sealed at all edges, including the junctions with the building frame. It can be achieved in new buildings using a silicone-based sealant, e.g., Dow Corning® ProFlex® Silicone, around all penetrations through the masonry façade. Alternatively, a breathable membrane can be used to ensure that the wall is breathable and that moisture infiltrating the masonry can escape.

Another important factor in preventing WDR-induced moisture ingress is to ensure that the masonry is not attached to the structural steel elements in a way that will compromise the performance of the thermal envelope. It can be done using a structural thermal break assembly compatible with the masonry material or by incorporating a masonry insulating shim between the shelf angle and the concrete surface.

Masonry wall assemblies are usually constructed from different types of materials, and each material has its unique behavior in response to temperature, moisture, elastic deformation, and settlement. Designing, creating, and maintaining a masonry wall with all the components required for optimum performance is essential.

The main components of a masonry wall include concrete blocks, mortar, grout, reinforcement (vertical, horizontal, and joint), insulation boards, shelf angles, and veneer ties. Previous studies have shown that properly selecting and constructing these wall components can improve the overall R-value of a masonry wall.

The materials and artistry are the most critical factors for achieving good moisture resistance in a masonry wall. The masonry material’s quality, especially the mortar, is key to resisting moisture ingress. It is also crucial to ensure no cracks in the masonry wall and that the cannon is well-bonded to the masonry units.

The type of material used for masonry anchors and shelf angles is an important factor in the thermal resistance of masonry walls. A concrete block masonry wall’s thermal performance depends on many factors, including insulation, air gaps, and conductive structural components (such as concrete block ties and shelf angles). These elements’ effectiveness must be considered to meet stringent code requirements for masonry construction.

The concrete block masonry tie is a masonry structure’s most common conductive structural element. Using stainless steel, which has a thermal conductivity three times greater than carbon steel, can significantly reduce the effect of this conductive element. However, this method is usually only considered feasible in high-rise buildings and can be cost-prohibitive.

A better solution is to use a more resilient, corrosion-resistant material such as galvanized steel for these elements. It improves the thermal performance of masonry structures and enhances corrosion resistance in marine environments where exposure to salt is frequent.

Other subtle design issues that can impact the thermal performance of a masonry wall include the choice of material for concrete block masonry ties, the amount of exterior insulation, and the location of shelf angles in the backup wall structure. These elements must be designed to minimize thermal bridging, which is the primary cause of low masonry wall R-values.

 Insulating concrete may be placed in the backup wall structure behind the shelf angle, or continuous insulation can be inserted between the backup wall structure and the masonry veneer to improve the R-value of a masonry wall. The choice of a particular insulation strategy is dependent on project-specific considerations.

Steel shelf angles provide vertical support for masonry veneers and often act as an effective thermal break. However, the effectiveness of a shelf angle in reducing a building’s U-value depends on its location and connection to the backup wall structure. Studies conducted by Finch et al. found that directly attached shelf angles reduce a masonry wall’s R-value by up to 55%. In contrast, shelf angles supported with intermittent knife plates or HSS tubes result in a much less significant reduction (12%).

Why Air Conditioning Installation Is A Wise Investment


Air conditioning installation is more than just a home improvement project. It boosts productivity and improves overall health by regulating indoor temperature.

However, installing a new AC requires a lot of heavy lifting and specialized tools that most homeowners don’t have lying around. So, hiring a professional is the best option. Click here at for expert service.

Improved Air Quality And Temperature

hvacAir conditioning installation is a wise investment in your home’s comfort, health, and safety. It can also increase your property value. However, it is not a job for DIYers. It requires an extensive knowledge of electrical and HVAC systems to install a new AC unit properly. Professional air conditioning installers ensure the system runs smoothly, safely, and efficiently with minimal noise. They also inspect and double-check all the components to be sure they meet manufacturers’ specifications and provide years of trouble-free service.

Installing a good quality air conditioner improves indoor air quality by reducing pollutants, such as dust and allergens. Modern air conditioners have efficient filtration systems that can reduce the amount of pollen, house mites, and other common household debris in your house’s air. This will greatly benefit those with allergies and respiratory problems. The air conditioning unit will also help to eliminate odors in the house.

Another benefit of air conditioning is that it helps keep humidity in check. Humidity can cause a lot of damage to a home. It can ruin furniture and other personal belongings, especially leather. It can also lead to the growth of bacteria, mold, and other harmful organisms. An air conditioning unit will prevent this from happening by removing excess moisture in the air and discharging it outdoors through the condensate drain.

A professional air conditioning company will choose the location of your new air conditioning unit carefully. It should be placed in a spot that is away from the windows and not blocked by tall or large objects. It should be set up on a concrete pad or the roof of your home and anchored securely. They will also install ductwork and thermostats if needed. They will recommend programmable and smart thermostats to make the most of your air conditioning system’s functionality.

In addition to installing the unit, they will teach you how to use it. They will also give you routine maintenance tips and suggestions to keep the system running at peak performance. They will not leave until they are certain you are happy with the work and all your questions have been answered.

Reduced Energy Bills

Cooling your home uses up a significant portion of the energy that you consume. It’s one of the largest energy loads in homes across the country and homeowners spend about $11 billion each year for air conditioning. An energy-efficient air conditioner can help reduce these costs.

Energy efficiency is not only a way to save on your electricity bills, but it will also extend the life of your unit. An efficient AC system doesn’t have to work as hard, so it’s less likely to break down or require costly repairs over time.

A professional will ensure that your new air conditioning system is properly sized for your home and will operate at optimal efficiency. This includes checking that the unit isn’t too small or too large and that it is positioned in a way that will provide maximum cooling benefits while keeping your utility costs low.

It’s also a good idea to have your air conditioner serviced regularly to keep it operating at peak performance. The maintenance and repair services that come with a qualified HVAC contractor will also increase the longevity of your unit.

Investing in a new AC system is an investment, but it can pay off by lowering your energy costs and helping to protect your health and productivity. Additionally, you may be eligible for state or local rebates that can help offset the cost of your air conditioning installation.

There are many ways to lower your energy bills, including installing solar panels, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescents, and improving your insulation. Another option is to plant trees around your house, which can block the summer sun and lower your cooling needs. You can also install ceiling fans to circulate air and make rooms feel cooler without using your air conditioning system as much. Energy-efficient windows are also a great investment because they can help keep heat out in the winter and sunlight out in the summer. You can even get tinted windows or those with a low-emissivity coating, which reflects long infrared waves and helps keep rooms cool.

Increased Home Value

When it comes to home remodeling, homeowners want to make sure that any improvements they make will add resale value. However many people don’t realize that air conditioning installation is a great way to increase the value of your home. It is one of the most cost-effective ways to do so.

This is because prospective buyers will be willing to spend more on your home if it has central air conditioning than a similar house in the neighborhood without it. This is particularly true if your old air conditioner is worn out or inefficient.

Additionally, new air conditioning systems are generally rated as more energy-efficient than older units. This is because the latest technology is designed to use less energy, which in turn reduces your electricity bills. And if you do choose to hire a professional for the installation, be sure that they are qualified and insured. You don’t want to risk your investment or your family’s safety by allowing a contractor to skimp on quality or training.

A good air conditioning company will have a team of licensed technicians who will properly size your home for the right size air conditioning unit and ensure that all parts are connected correctly. They will also take the time to explain how the system works and recommend routine maintenance tips for your peace of mind.

In addition to ensuring that the work is done correctly, hiring a professional will eliminate the need for you to deal with permits and other paperwork. Most governments require that any renovations involving major appliances like HVAC units be inspected and approved by local authorities before being completed.

If you are planning on selling your home shortly, then installing a new AC system is a must. Not only will it increase your home’s value, but it will also help you sell it more quickly.

Increased Comfort

Air conditioning installation is a smart way to add comfort to any space in your home. This investment improves your quality of life in several ways and can boost your property value as well.

Whether you’re cooling one room or an entire house, professional air conditioning installation ensures that everything is connected properly. This includes ensuring the right size of metal ductwork is used to keep temperatures balanced throughout your house and that the proper amount of coolant is fed into the system. It also involves making sure that your new air conditioner isn’t consuming too much energy by locating it correctly and securing it against the wall.

In addition to reducing energy bills, installing an air conditioning system can also reduce the amount of money you spend on cooling your business. Air conditioning systems use less energy than fans, which means they’re a more cost-effective option for businesses that are looking to lower their utility bills and operating costs.

A cool home or office can make a huge difference in your quality of life, especially during the hot summer months. Air conditioning can improve your productivity, mood, and even sleep patterns. Additionally, it can protect your personal belongings from moisture damage. With all the benefits associated with air conditioning, it’s no wonder so many people are choosing to have this equipment installed in their homes.

While an AC unit is a major purchase, you can often get tax credits and rebates to help offset the costs. These incentives are available to homeowners who install qualified units and can save up to $3,200 annually.

With the hot weather approaching, homeowners and businesses in Pleasanton are looking for ways to keep their spaces comfortable and cool. Air conditioning installation is a great choice and can provide a wide range of benefits. By using an AC, you can enjoy a cooler environment that’s comfortable for your family, friends, and employees. This can make a big difference in your overall comfort level and will help you to feel better at work and home.